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Tuesday, June 25, 2013

ACTIVE and PASSIVE VOICES (BENTUK AKTIF dan PASIF)


Kata kerja transitif mempunyai dua voice, aktif dan pasif.
1)      Active Voice (Bentuk Aktif) – di sini orang, binatang, atau benda yang ditunjuk oleh subject dikatakan melakukan sesuatu pada sesuatu yang lain:
Roni killed a tiger = Roni membunuh seekor harimau.
(di sini orang yang ditunjukkan oleh subjek yaitu Roni, melakukan sesuatu pada seekor harimau)
2)      Passive Voice (Bentuk Pasif) – di sini orang, binatang, atau benda dikatakan menderita/mendapat sesuatu dari sesuatu yang lain:
A tiger was killed by Roni = Seekor harimau dibunuh oleh Roni.
(di sini binatang yang ditunjukkan oleh subject adalah seekor harimau, menderita sesuatu dari Roni)

Rumus Bentuk Pasif
 
To be + Past Participle
 
a)      Kata kerja intransitive tidak digunakan dalam bentuk pasif, kecuali apabila kata kerja itu menggunakan cognate object dalam bentuk aktif:
Aktif – She sang a fine song = ia menyanyikan sebuah nyanyian merdu.
Pasif – A fine song was sung by her = sebuah nyanyian merdu dinyanyikan olehnya.
b)      Apabila kalimat diubah dari bentuk aktif ke pasif, objek untuk kata kerja aktif menjadi subjek untuk kata kerja pasif.

Objek untuk kata kerja aktif:
Linda can make tarts = Linda dapat membuat kue tar.

Subjek untuk kalimat pasif:
Tarts can be made by Linda = Tar dapat dibuat oleh Linda.

c)       Retained Object (Objek yang tetap dipakai/ dipertahankan dalam pasif)
Dua buah objek dalam kalimat aktif, ketika diubah menjadi kalimat pasif, masih tetap ada sebuah objek dipertahankan, objek yang dinamakan Retained object.
Objek ini mungkin:
Objek tak langsung dari kata kerja aktif, atau objek langsung dari kata kerja aktif.

Kata kerja aktif        : We gave him a prize = kami memberinya hadiah
Kata kerja pasif        : A prize was given him by us = hadiah diberikan padanya oleh kami

d)      Kapan saja kata kerja transitif dari prediksi tak lengkap diubah dari bentuk aktif ke pasif, komplemen objektif menjadi komplemen subjektif.

Active Voice                                                        Passive Voice
       Komplemen untuk Objek                              Komplemen untuk subjek
They elected him president                         He was elected president (by them)
= Mereka memilih dia menjadi presiden     = Dia dipilih menjadi presiden (oleh mereka)


Berikut adalah contoh kalimat-kalimat aktif yang diubah menjadi kalimat-kalimat pasif dalam bentuk tenses:

Active
Passive
Simple Present
1.
Mary eats rice.
1.
Rice is eaten by Mary.
2.
Mary doesn’t eat rice.
2.
Rice isn’t eaten by Mary.
3.
Does Mary eat rice?
3.
Is rice eaten by Mary?
4.
What does Mary do?
4.
What is done by Mary?
5.
What does Mary eat?
5.
What is eaten by Mary
Present Continuous
1.
Mary is eating rice.
1.
Rice is being eaten by Mary.
2.
Mary isn’t eating rice.
2.
Rice isn’t being eaten by Mary.
3.
Is Mary eating rice?
3.
Is rice being eaten by Mary?
4.
What is Mary doing?
4.
What is being done by Mary?
5.
What is Mary eating?
5.
What is being eaten by Mary?
Present Perfect
1.
Mary has eaten rice.
1.
Rice has been eaten by Mary.
2.
Mary hasn’t eaten rice.
2.
Rice hasn’t been eaten by Mary.
3.
Has Mary eaten rice?
3.
Has rice been eaten by Mary?
4.
What has Mary done?
4.
What has been done by Mary?
5.
What has Mary eaten?
5.
What has been eaten by Mary?
Present Perfect Continuous
1.
Mary has been eating rice.
1.
Rice has been being eaten by Mary.
2.
Mary hasn’t been eating rice.
2.
Rice hasn’t been being eaten by Mary.
3.
Has Mary been eating rice?
3.
Has rice been being eaten by Mary?
4.
What has Mary been doing?
4.
What has been being done by Mary?
5.
What has Mary been eating?
5.
What has been being eaten by Mary?
Simple Past
1.
Mary ate rice.
1.
Rice was eaten by Mary.
2.
Mary didn’t eat rice.
2.
Rice wasn’t eaten by Mary.
3.
Did Mary eat rice?
3.
Was rice eaten by Mary?
4.
What did Mary do?
4.
What was done by Mary?
5.
What did Mary eat?
5.
What was eaten by Mary?
Past Continuous
1.
Mary was eating rice.
1.
Rice was being eaten by Mary.
2.
Mary wasn’t eating rice.
2.
Rice wasn’t being eaten by Mary.
3.
Was Mary eating rice?
3.
Was rice being eaten by Mary?
4.
What was Mary doing?
4.
What was being done by Mary?
5.
What was Mary eating?
5.
What was being eaten by Mary?
Past Perfect
1.
Mary had eaten rice.
1.
Rice had been eaten by Mary.
2.
Mary hadn’t eaten rice.
2.
Rice hadn’t been eaten by Mary.
3.
Had Mary eaten rice?
3.
Had rice been eaten by Mary?
4.
What had Mary done?
4.
What had been done by Mary?
5.
What had Mary eaten?
5.
What had been eaten by Mary?
Simple Future
1.
Mary will eat rice.
1.
Rice will be eaten by Mary.
2.
Mary won’t eat rice
2.
Rice won’t be eaten by Mary.
3.
Will Mary eat rice?
3.
Will rice be eaten by Mary?
4.
What will Mary do?
4.
What will be done by Mary?
5.
What will Mary eat?
5.
What will be eaten by Mary?
Future Perfect
1.
Mary will have eaten rice.
1.
Rice will have been eaten by Mary.
2.
Mary won’t have eaten rice.
2.
Rice won’t have been eaten by Mary.
3.
Will Mary have eaten rice?
3.
Will rice have been eaten by Mary?
4.
What will Mary have done?
4.
What will have been done by Mary?
5.
What will Mary have eaten?
5.
What will have been eaten by Mary?
Future Perfect Continuous
1.
Mary will have been eating rice.
1.
Rice will have been being eaten by Mary.
2.
Mary won’t have been eating rice.
2.
Rice won’t have been being eaten by Mary.
3.
Will Mary have been eating rice?
3.
Will rice have been being eaten by Mary?
4.
What will Mary have been doing?
4.
What will have been being done by Mary?
5.
What will Mary have been eating?
5.
What will have been being eaten by Mary?


 

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