Ø FORMALISM THEORY
Formalism theory is a part of structuralism. Etymologically, formalism was from a Latin word, forma, which has meaning form or shape. Formalism theory refuses the assumption that literary works are the expression of life’s view. It also refuses if the function of literary works only as a media to know more about the essential of the culture. Formalism theory can be used to analyze literature and linguistics.
v Formalism in linguistics
Structuralism in linguistics was first leaded by Ferdinand de Saussure through mazhab Jenewa. The basic concept is the differentiation between:
a) Significant (form, sound, symbol, signifier) and signifie (which means signified, symbolized, signifier),
b) Parole (words, individual language use) and langue (the languages which have been agreed)
c) Synchronic (the study of language in a certain time) and diachronic (the study of language over the time).
According to de Saussure , languages are similar with music, in understanding it, we must note the whole parts, not individually. Linguistics modern could be developed by a) giving a priority to the analysis of synchronic and leaving the analysis of diachronic of the nineteenth century. b) Giving a priority to the language as a system (langue).
v Formalism in Literature
The main purpose of this theory is the study of literature by analyzing the elements of literature, poetry, association, opposition, etc. Formal method does not destruct the text and reduce, but reconstruct by maximizing the concept of functions so that the text can be organized. The essential of literariness is the general character of the formalist.
Ø DYNAMIC STRUCTURALISM THEORY
Etymologically, structure came from word, structura (Latin), means form or building. Structuralism is an understanding of elements of the structure itself with mechanism of interrelation, the interrelation of one element with the others, and the interrelation of one element with the totality. Dynamic structuralism was first found by Mukarovsky and Felik Vodicka. They said that literary works are the process of communication, fact of semiotic, consists of sign, structure, and values.
Definitively, structuralism gives attention to the analysis of elements in literary works. The elements of prose are theme, conflict, setting, characters, plot, point of view, and style of language. Elements in poetry are theme, stylist, imaginary, rhyme, diction, symbol, etc. Elements in Drama are theme, dialog, conflict, setting, character, plot, and style of language.
Ø SEMIOTIC THEORY
In the early of 20th century, semiotic was first found as the effect of the stagnancy of the structuralism itself. According to Noth (ibid, 11) there are four tradition which caused the birth of semiotic; they are, semantic, logic, rhetoric, and hermeneutic. Semiotic was from word Greece, seme, means sign interpreter. In a wider sense, as a theory, semiotic is the study of systematic about production and sign interpretation, way of working, and the use in the human life. The theory of semiotic can be used in Linguistics, literature, and culture.
v Semiotic in linguistics
Saussure was also known as an expert of semiotic in linguistics. The concepts of Saussure consist of two sign different side as a dichotomy, such as: signifier (signifier, significant, semaion) and signifie (signified, signifie, semainomenon), individual utterance (parole) and general language (langue), syntagmatic and paradigmatic , diachronic and synchronic. The other concept is the difference of language expression (parole, speech, utterance) and system of things among the signs, system which is used by all people (langue, language). Parole is concrete and formed a language system which is abstract (langue).
v Semiotic in literature
There are many ways in analyzing literary works by semiotic. According to Wellek and Warren, the most common use in analyzing literary works is through two steps, intrinsic analysis and extrinsic analysis. The other way which was conveyed by Abrams (1976; 6-29), combined four aspects; they are a) the author (expressive), b) universality (mimetic), c) the reader (pragmatic), d) objective (the works itself).
Signs are not limited in a written text. There should be relationship among the author, the work, and the reader. Literary works in text also contain meaning as non verbal signs such as the book cover, color arrangement, thick of book, font letter.
v Semiotic in culture
Cultural semiotic described by Aart van Zoest (1993; 124-131), is too general if it is related to the definition of culture, so all models of semiotic are included in cultural semiotic. Cultural semiotic is signs which are contained in a certain group of society, human and many kinds of tradition and habits. This method is used to remember that basically, as a creature; human can not be separated with the society.
Aart van Zoest said that social interaction is happened as the result of excite and interpretation to system of signs, signs of language or non- language.
Ø NARRATOLOGY STRUCTURALISM THEORY
Narratology was from the Latin word narratio, means story, words, tale) and logos, means study. Narratology is also called theory of narrative text. Narration is definited as the representation of two factual events or fictional in a sequence of time. Narrator is a speaker in a text; subject linguistically, not a person, not an author.
Narratology is usually used in analyzing literature. Almost the entire genres of literature, especially fiction use the elements of story and the narration. In literary works the narration also called plot. Without plot, text and literary works only have a function as fact.
Ø POSTMODERNISM THEORY
Postmodernism was from the Latin word, modo, means new. This theory is an activity when a progress success to be achieve. The characteristic of postmodernism are the refusal of a center, absolution, great narration, metanarration, history movement which is monolinier. This theory can be used in analyzing literature and culture.
v Postmodernism in literature
Postmodernism in literature relate with the characteristic of literary works, as a concept, not a theory. As a postmodernism stream, literary works can not be separated with philosophy. One literature example of postmodernism is science fictions, a literary work where the reader always asked about the existence of the reality.
v Postmodernism in culture
As a cultural movement, postmodernism is a deodorization, fighting the authority on a stage play, not anymore playing a character as an investor, labor, and country. The development of postmodernism is supported by the improvement of the technology. Television, besides as the main media of films, it is also a popular media of culture which is more flexible and efficient to the film it self.
Ø FEMINISM THEORY
Feminism was found in the early of 20th century by Virginia Woolf in her book a Room of One’s Own (1929). Its development was so fast, as one of the aspect theories of contemporary culture. Etymologically, feminism was from word femme, means woman (singular) which fighting for the right of women (plural).
Sociologically, feminism literature based on understanding about women’s inferiority. As a cultural activity, feminism literature has to be differentiated to the man’s literature, in relation with the writer or the reader. Linked with the emancipation movement in American in 1700s, feminism literature has direction to open, deconstruct the system of literature which always in the man’s authority. Feminism has some ideology; they are liberal feminism, radical feminism, Marxis feminism, and sociology feminism.
Ø POSTCOLONIALSM THEORY
In etymology, post colonialism was from words ‘post’ and ‘colonial’ (agricultural land, residence), so post colonialism did not contain the meaning as colony, authority, and the connotation of exploitation.
According to Shelley Walia (2001: 6; said, 2003: 58-59) the project of post colonialism was first found by Frantz Fanon in his book Black Skin, White Masks and the Wretched of the Earth (1967). Definitively, the theory of post colonialism presented after the colonialed countries get their independences.
There are four reasons why this theory is very suitable to be used in analyzing literary works:
o As a cultural phenomenon, literature shows the system of communication between the sender and the receiver, as a mediator between the past and the present time.
o Literary works show different life problematic, emotionality and intellectuality, fact and fiction. Literature is the society it self.
o Literary works are not bound in space and time. Contemporary is the most significant manifestation.
o Some problems are not described in symbolic, hidden, so that the real purpose is not appeared.
Ø POSIVISTIC METHOD
Positivistic is an approach based on the though of Comte’s philosophy. Positivistic try to find facts or the causes of objective phenomenas, apart from the personal subjective view. The characteristics of this approach can be seen from three studies:
o Ontologism aspect, the positivistic wish that the reality of culture can be studied independently, can be controlled, and can be eliminated by the other object.
o Epistemology, try to find the generalization of cultural phenomenon.
o Axiology, wish the process of cultural research free of values. It means that the researchers need the objectivity which is not limited in space and time.
Positivistic can be used to analyze the culture in a society.
Ø NATURALISTIC METHOD
Naturalistic is behavior and value which are believed by a group of human that only can be understood trough the analysis of their natural setting. This method is suitable to be used in analyzing about the culture.
In relation with using method, naturalistic approach covered three things:
· Naturalistic sometimes is equaled with the explanatory research that is method to decline the hypothesis to evaluate it.
· Naturalistic is sometimes equaled with field research that is method of natural environment study.
· Naturalistic is sometimes viewed as the facility to study about the real phenomenon, such as definition of situation, the meaning which is constructed sociologically, or interpretation about the social events.